The developmental onset of a rudimentary form of play fighting in C57 mice

play fighting in its most elaborate form involves nonagonistic wrestling between pairmates, where one partner grabs, holds, bites, or otherwise contacts the other. Such play occurs in the absence of the functional consequences associated with serious fighting (e.g., resource acquisition or protection). Typically, the biting, nosing, or grooming contact during...

Sexual and aggressive play fighting of sibling Richardson’s ground squirrels

play fighting in many species of squirrels can involve sexual play and aggressive play, both of which can lead to wrestling which appears superficially similar. Such convergence can make scoring of the relative frequencies of these two types of play difficult and can lead to the mistaken conclusion that they...

Different levels of complexity in the play fighting by muroid rodents appear to result from different levels of intensity of attack and defense

play fighting in deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii, prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, and montane voles, M. Montanus, was compared to that of laboratory rats, Rattus norvegicus. Play in rats appears more complex for two reasons: 1) more of the playful contacts elicit defensive behaviors, and 2) more of these defenses...

The organization of play fighting in the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster): Mixing predatory and sociosexual targets and tactics

The body targets contacted, the type of contact made, and the patterns of defense and counterattack elicited by those attacks are examined in the play fighting of captive male and female pairs of grasshopper mice. The nape was the most frequently contacted body target, irrespective of the type of contact...

Agonistic versus amicable targets of attack and defense: Consequences for the origin, function, and descriptive classification of play fighting

play fighting appears to involve the behavior patterns of attack and defense otherwise seen in serious fighting. The degree of similarity, however, depends on the body targets attacked and defended during these forms of fighting. For many taxa, including diverse mammalian families and some birds, the same targets are attacked...

Relaxed open mouth as a playful signal in wild ring-tailed lemurs

Play signals are commonly used by animals to communicate their playful motivation and to limit the risk that rough acts are misunderstood by playmates. The relaxed open mouth is the most common facial expression performed during play in many mammals and represents the ritualized version of the movement anticipating a...

Fair play and its connection with social tolerance, reciprocity and the ethology of peace

The concept of peace, with its corollary of behaviours, strategies and social implications, is commonly believed as a uniquely human feature. Through a comparative approach, we show how social play in animals may have paved the way for the emergence of peace. By playing fairly, human and nonhuman animals learn...

Motivation, development and object play: comparative perspectives with lessons from dogs

Object play occurs in diverse animals in addition to birds and mammals. Although many carnivores engage in object play in a predatory context, many non-predators do so also. Conjectures over the years on the motivation to play are reviewed dealing with intrinsic, developmental, and stimulus factors. We then report on...

What is the state of play?

My initial response to the question posed to me is that the state of play, as a scientific field, is actually pretty healthy. By this I mean that psychologists, biologists, ethologists, neuros-cientists, educators, sociologists, and others are realizing that play is an important, if not critical, aspect of life and an exciting and...

Search