Research Articles

The emergence of primary anoetic consciousness in episodic memory

Based on an interdisciplinary perspective, we discuss how primary-process, anoetic forms of consciousness emerge into higher forms of awareness such as knowledge-based episodic knowing and self-aware forms of higher-order consciousness like autonoetic awareness. Anoetic consciousness is defined as the rudimentary state of affective, homeostatic, and sensory-perceptual mental experiences. It can...

How domestication modulates play behavior: A comparative analysis between wild rats and a laboratory strain of rattus norvegicusa

Laboratory rats have been widely used to study the development and neural underpinnings of play behavior. However, it is not known whether domestic rats play in the same way and at the same frequency as their wild counterparts. In this study, the play of juvenile rats from a colony of...

Evolving the tactics of play fighting: insights from simulating the ìkeep away gameî in rats

play fighting in many animals consists of a complex choreography of somewhat stereotypical behaviors involving attack and defenseótypically of particular body areasóthat are differentially generated under specific conditions. In most domains where behavior is considered, including the study of social play, the prevailing explanatory theories rest on the assumptions that:...

Solitary, observer, parallel, and social object play in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

Many comparative studies have focused on the emergence of solitary and social play in early development, however, few consider observer and parallel forms of play. In this study, we analyzed approximately 21 h of video recordings and revealed a significant difference between the frequency of solitary, observer, parallel, and social...

Sex-dependent effects of Cacna1c haploinsufficiency on juvenile social play behavior and pro-social 50-kHz ultrasonic communication in rats

As cross-disorder risk gene, CACNA1C is implicated in the etiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in social behavior and communication and there is evidence for sex-dependent influences of single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CACNA1C on diagnosis, course, and recovery in humans. In this study, we aimed, therefore, at further...

Mothers’ and father’s perceptions of the risks and benefits of screen time and physical activity during early childhood: A qualitative study

Background: This study sought to explore mothers' and fathers' perceptions of the risks and benefits of screen time and active play during early childhood. Methods: In-depth semi structured telephone interviews were conducted with mothers and fathers (n = 28) of children aged 3-5 years who had earlier taken part in...

Synthetic Ethology and the Evolution of Cooperative Communication

Synthetic ethology is proposed as a means of conducting controlled experiments investigating the mechanisms and evolution of communication. After a discussion of the goals and methods of synthetic ethology, two series of experiments are described based on at least 5000 breeding cycles. The first demonstrates the evolution of cooperative communication...

Tickling induces reward in adolescent rats

In adolescent rats, 50-kHz vocalizations are most evident during tickling and rough-and-tumble play. The following experiments evaluated whether 50-kHz vocalizations reflect positive social affect by determining (1) if tickling is a rewarding event, (2) if social or isolate housing conditions differentially influence the response (since housing condition has been found...

Evaluating group activity schedules to promote social play in children with autism

We evaluated the effects of group activity schedules on social engagement among children with autism spectrum disorders. Although activity schedules are often applied to dyads, we assigned children to small groups (e.g., 3-4 children) to increase the number of available play partners and potential social validity of the intervention. We...

Children’s clans’; social organisation and interpretive reconstruction as aspects on development of peer-groups in outdoor play

The focus of this article is children's self-organisation of peer-groups through play. The play was initiated by encounters with the environment. The use of ethnographic methods in early childhood research has proved helpful to elucidate, interpret, and understand children's experiences and the creation of meaning in their everyday lives. This...

Symbolic Play in School-Aged Minimally Verbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Few interventions exist for school-aged minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Even though play skills are associated with children's production of language, few studies have focused on play for minimally verbal children. Fifty-eight minimally verbal children with ASD received a naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention. Children were randomized to...

Toddlers’ social competence, play, movement skills and well-being: an analysis of their relationship based on authentic assessment in kindergarten

This article explores the relationship between toddlers' (age: 30-33 months) well-being (WB), play (PL), social-emotional competence (SC) and movement skills (MS). Two hypotheses were put forward for testing: (1) there is a significant positive correlation between WB, PL, SC and MS, and (2) toddlers' WB can be predicted from their...

Octodon degus. A useful animal model for social-affective neuroscience research: Basic description of separation distress, social attachments and play

A challenge for social-affective neuroscience programs is to identify simple and yet valid animal models for studying the expression of basic social emotions and their role during different developmental windows, from infancy to adulthood. For example, although laboratory rats are useful for studying juvenile social interactions, they are not ideal...

Child-centered play therapy as an intervention for children with autism: A literature review Heidi Hillman Eastern Washington

The purpose of this article was to systematically review the play therapy literature examining the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy with the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population. Child-centered play therapy is shown to be an evidencebased, effective intervention for children; however, a systematic review of childcentered play therapy as an...

Young children’s experiences with contemporary art

This ethnographic study describes how an in-depth preschool learning pathway developed around children's investigations into a contemporary artist. It found that learning with Yayoi Kusama's art favoured habits of exploration, reflection, revisitation and development of ideas, and enriched children's visual awareness, inclusive artlearning conversations and their learning in mathematics, literacy...

Improvements in Physical Activity Opportunities: Results From a Community-Based Family Child Care Intervention

Introduction: Reaching preschool-aged children to establish healthy lifestyle habits, including physical activity, is an important component of obesity prevention efforts. However, few studies have examined family child care homes where nearly 1 million children receive care. Study design: A pre- and post-intervention evaluation without a control group was conducted to...

Experience and cortical control over the pubertal transition to rougher play fighting in rats

With the onset of puberty, play fighting in rats decreases in frequency and the tactics of attack and defense that are used are rougher. Previous studies have shown that the changes in the frequency of play and in the use of defensive tactics arise independently of social experience. Furthermore, while...

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